The SAUT university generator placed nearby Malimbe min-stand which is most used to supply electricity TANESCO source of energy cut-off. |Photo by VITUS AUDAX September 2020

Atmospheric pollution is not the only type of contamination that is harming living beings on the planet. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is one of the most dangerous environmental threats to health. According to the European Environment Agency (EEA), noise is responsible for 16,600 premature deaths and more than 72,000 hospitalized every year in Europe alone. According to the WHO..., noise is harmful when it exceeds 75 decibels(dB) and feels painful at levels above 120 dB. Decibel (dB) refers to the unit that used to measure the intensity of a sound. Whereby the highest the decibel scale, the louder the noise. Hence on the decibel scale, the level in-creases 10 times more intense that a sound is actually 10 times more intense or powerful.
Moreover, for a normal calculation when a sound is at 70 (dB) are general considered to be safe. But from 71 (dB) to above is said to damage hearing system over the time. Whereby researchers have found that people who exposed over long period of time to noise level of 71 (dB) to above are at a much risk for hearing loss. That is how noise is automatically harmful.
Drivers honking the horn, groups of workers drilling the road surface, aircraft flying over us in the sky... Noise, noise and more noise. Cities have become the epicenter of a type of pollution, acoustics, which, although its invisibility and the fact that coronavirus crisis reduced it until almost yearn it, is severely damaging to human beings. So much so that the European Environment Agency estimates that noise is responsible for 72,000 hospital admissions and 16,600 premature deaths every year in Europe alone.
Not only does it hurt humans, it is bad for animals, too. According to the Nation-al Park Service (NPS) in the United States, noise pollution has an enormous environ-mental impact and does serious damage to wildlife. Experts say noise pollutioncaninterfere with breeding cycles and rearing and is even hastening the extinction of some species.
Not every noise or sounds can be termed as pollution but. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines noise above 65 decibels (dB) as noise pollution. To be precise, noise becomes harmful when it exceeds 75 decibels (dB) and is painful above 120 dB. As a consequence, it is recommended noise levels be kept below 65 dB during the day and indicates that restful sleep is impossible with nighttime ambient noise levels in excess of 30 dB. There many source of noise pollution hence these involves the following Traffic noise For example, a car horn produces 90 dB and a bus produces 100 dB. Air traffic noise there are fewer aircraft flying over cities than there are cars on the roads, but the impact is greater: a single aircraft produces 130 dB. Construction site building and car park construction and road and pavement resurfacing works are very noisy. For ex-ample, a pneumatic drill produces 110 dB.
Catering and night life this include Bars, restaurants and terraces that spill outside when the weather is good can produce more than 100 dB. This includes noise from pubs and clubs. Animal’s noise made by animals can go unnoticed, but a howling or barking dog, for example, can produce around 60-80 dB. Compering to the sources of noise pollution with the decibel units that it owns defines and elaborates much on daily life activities and amount of noises produced. With such noise’s pollution their different effects that created mostly due to the excess of decibel dB hence these may involve Physical respiratory agitation, racing pulse, high blood pressure, headaches and, in case of extremely loud, constant noise, gastritis, colitis and even heart at-tacks. Psychological noise can cause attacks of stress, fatigue, depression, anxiety and hysteria in both humans and animals. Sleep and behavioral disorders the noise above 45 dB stops you from falling asleep or sleeping properly.
Remember that according to the World Health Organization it should be no more than 30 dB. Loud noise can have latent effects on our behavior, causing aggressive behavior and irritability. Memory and concentration noise may affect people’s ability to focus, which can lead to low performance over time. It is also bad for the memory, making it hard to study. Despite its important on supplying electricity during TANESCO energy cut-off, SAUT generator has been much disturbing not only passengers around Malimbe min stand but also students studying at M2 and M3 classes. The presence of this generator has been much discussed by Malimbe min stand users hence expressing their concern on the presence of such noise polluting generator.
“Most of time I have been missing some dangerous accidents due to the failure in differentiating cars and motorbike sound with generator sounds hence it noises similar to such transportations devices.” Amina Mohamed BAED 2 student expressed “There is the highly need to shift this generator to far from this place in order to reduces such noises that may lead to dangerous accidents.” She added
Erick Zewanga is the motorbike cyclist most known as ‘bodaboda’ at Malimbe min stand said to be missed with more than ten accidents due to noising from this genera-tor. “It is a risk but no way-out hence we need to get money and this is our right place for it. More than ten times I have been missed accident with my customers hence I fail to differenciate the voice of cars and that of generator and simply believe that it is a generator that where I always mistakes.” He addressed “I don’t think if it is possible to remove it here but it is more that disturbance there is the need to rethink of its replacing alter-native.” He added Antidia Issa is the minibus conductor laments on the presence of that generator being a cause of misunderstanding with her customers. “It reaches a time I lose understanding with my customers also sometimes talking like a mad this because of the frequently soundsfrom thatgenerator. One may tell you that I have gottwo hundred shilling you allow him/her but finally you become wondering when a person paysyou such shilling and told you that we agreed before.” She addressed
Otto Kweyamba is BAMC 3 student in spite of being writing an articles on the noises caused by the road around M2 and M3 lecture and generator noises. He said to be more confused with such noises during his studies. “I always fail to understand even when lecturer is providing a training this because of such noises I did a story one day in The SAUT Times but no any efforts was taken but in short it is more than disturbance during learning time and there is the need to replace it for the perfectiveness.” Otto said
In comparison to other pollutants the control of environmental noise has been troubled by insufficient knowledge of its effects on humans and of dose-response relationships as a lack of defined criteria. While it has been suggested that noise pollution is primarily a luxury problem in developed countries. Hence one cannot ignore that the exposure is often higher in developing countries like Tanzania due to bad planning and poor construction as it appear at SAUT campus.
Speaking to the reporter the Saint Augustine University of Tanzania estate Man-age Mr. Godfrey Anthon said to experience the same situation but a problem remains on the budget that do not consider these changes. “This is also affecting me because it located near my office hence I fail to work effectively in my office once switched on.” He said “About thinking to change this system of generator to solar system is not an issue hence will reduce daily costs of buying oil but the installation of solar system for the first time is more cost full things that cause it to be not considered in the budget. He added International bodies like the WHO agree that awareness of noise pollution is essential to beat this invisible enemy. For example: avoid very noisy leisure activities, opt for alternatives means of transport such as bicycles or electric vehicles over taking the car, do your housework at recommended times, insulate homes with noise-absorbing materials, etc. Educating the younger generation is also an essential aspect of environmental education.
Governments can also take measures to ensure correct noise management and reduce noise pollution. For example: protecting certain areas parts of the country-side, areas of natural interest, city parks, etc. from noise,establishingregulationsthatincludepreventiveandcorrective measures mandatory separation between residential zones and sources of noise like airports, fines for exceeding noise limits, etc. , in-stallingnoise insulation innew buildings, creatingpedestrian areas where traffic is only allowed to enter to offload goodsat certain times, replacing traditional asphalt with more efficient options that can reduce traffic noise by up to 3 dB, among others.Any beautifulness come from difficult as a large institution as SAUT has to rethink regardless of the coast on how to shift from generator system to solar system but for the safety of SAUT environment there is the great need to sacrifice some of budgeted issue and replace this important and environmental healthy changes.
...Story by VITUS AUDAX


A child re-using improper dumped surgical masks used for covid-19 prevention. |Photo by chikaonuu

Improper disposal of surgical masks that people have been putting on in prevention of Covid 19 pandemic has led to the environment problem. The outbreak of covid19 pandemic is no longer a new phenomenon. Citizens around the world are hustling to take any possible measures to safeguard themselves against the corona virus and one of the precautions that people take is the use of surgical face mask. Along with it’s possible impact in preventing... the spread of corona virus face mask is now led to the new health and environment threat due to the randomly disposal of it.
Dr. Damas from Bugando medical center said that improperly discarded masks, especially those who are soiled or have respiratory secretions on them, could be potential health hazards when come into con-tact with water and earthly organisms. The most vulnerable group will be the garbage collectors who are the source of infection for whoever they come into contact with. the mixture of polluted masks and other surgical waste may cause a potential danger to rubbish collectors when they put hands in the waste bins to collect recyclable items“ Damas said. Also Dr Damas said that the indiscriminate disposal of masks will also have a negative effect on the environment, especially on marine life, when they find their way to rivers and seas. “When plastic left in the water for long period of time will be enough for bacteria to grow on it, it actually smells like food which led animals to mistake this waste with food which could lead to entanglement, harsh ingestion and death“. Dr Damas said.
Also the NEMC lawyer Manchare Suguta said that the surgical mask is made by plastic materials and when plastic is dumped in landfills, it interacts with water and forms dangerous chemicals. When these chemicals leach underground, they degrade the water quality. The wind carries and deposits plastic from one place to another, increasing the land disorder. ”It can also get trapped on poles, traffic lights, trees, fences, towers, etc. and animals that may come in the locality and might suffocate them to death because the mass of plastic has displaced animals or the related toxins have poisoned them, plastic pollution does a lot of damage to the world’s ecosystems”. Manchare said
The Luchelele health officer Zafarani Nassoro said that the ward government makesefforts to find the waste collector agency since the former agency left the field due to negative response of citizens especially in payment hence the issue of environment protection now is on individual’s hands. “It’s also an individual’s responsibility to make sure he/she lives in clear and safe environment and also to follow the necessary guidelines including proper disposal of their mask and other surgical equipment’s” Zafarani said. She added that people must obey their goodwill and empathy unless otherwise the government will impose penalties for those who will try to go against the instruction provided by the authority.
Alex Majulu a resident from Ngaza Street said that the awareness among the people on proper ways of keeping the used mask is not well provided.“ You know sometimes we are doing mistake without any idea that it’s a mistake there are few people who real care about used mask as long as it“s already used no more efforts to keep it in safe area” Majulu said.
Theodore Tarimo an entrepreneur from Sweya Street said that government must allocate the specific areas to keep used mask since if there is no any safe area to keep it the problem will not end up. “When there is location to dump those used masks will be better and at such point those who will go against have to be punished rather than punish people before creating any suitable environment to keep it safe”. Tarimo said
According to the WHO“s health guide-lines, soiled tissues and used face masks must be thrown only into lidded litter bins, while any medical gear used by affected patients and hospital staff must be sterilized and burnt at high temperatures in dedicated incinerators. As such, only state-of-the-art incinerators operating at 850-1100°C, with special gas-cleaning equipment, can burn these items in accordance with inter-national emission standards.


A Giraffe acquiring food from the top of a tree in Serengeti national park Tanzania. |Photo by Vitus Audax sept 2020

The Biologist Lynn Margulis and the British Chemist James E Love-lock believes that in the earth living and nonliving parts are viewed as complex interacting system that can be a sought of single organism. This is to show that living organism as well as nonliving depends on one another in various issues like feeding system. Animal life in Serengeti national park is... a good evidence of the model proposed by Lnny and love lock which is called Gaia hypothesis since animals and human being in Serengeti are much depending with one another as follows.
The symbolic relationship exists between the zebra and wildebeast of the Serengeti. The clockwise direction of wildebeest and zebra across Mara river which starts from July to October where about 2 million animals reveals the relationship between zebra and wildebeest simply because wildebeest have no good remembrance memory that is why they are nicknamed zero brain so their migration depends on zebra which are able to remember the route likewise wildebeest having ability to detect thunder storm in a particular which is difficult for zebra to do so.
Bryna griffin in his article Serengeti wildebeest said that “the timing for count de-pends on the wildebeest themselves. They must be disbursed in a very specific way and zebra is always there to lead the route due to its memory capacity that wildebeest have not” Bryana said. Also the same migration between zebra and wildebeest their relationship is shown through feeding style. This is because wildebeest is not capable to eat the long grass hence depends on zebra to produce the short grass for them and that is why in the migration zebra always is frontlines.
One of the Serengeti national park tour guider called Novatus Dickson explained that “wildebeest are fussy eaters, they are selective grazers and only feed upon the shorter parts of the grass but luckily for them, zebras are bulk grazers they are not nearly as prickly over their grass choice. They act as lawnmower, cropping the grass and making it palatable for wildebeest to consume” Dickoson said.
Moreover, predators like lion and crocodile depends on the migration of wildebeest and zebra. The crocodile in river Mara is said to be the biggest crocodile in Africa and are expected to eatregularly. They can waitayear for their meatwhich they expectto eatfromtheanimalscrossing the river for their migration. Also, the lion and leopards are also de-pend on the weak migrant who failed to proceed with the journey because of their age and hardship situation they experience and finally isolated by youth group where predators get chance to capture them hence get food. Dickson said that the migration is not easy and normally called survive for fit-test only the strong survive. Meaning that all strong will finish the cycle but the weak won’t and predators are their time for get-ting food. He explained.
The relationship between hyena and Lions and hyena both are consumer of the same pray, they are each other’s most competitors simply because lions are four times larger than hyenas and hence can kill big animals that hyena cannot so hyena wait until lion kill the animal at least to cut carcass and that is how hyena eat. Article from Africa wildlife detective so called hyena facts said that “Hyena and predators except a lion from a kill ,lioness will give way if they are outnumbered four to one and cannot be displaced, male is present however if they are heavily outnumbered, even lions give away their food to them”.
All in all, the life cycle of animals in Serengeti national park depending much on the effort of human being to ensuretheenvironmentalconservation of thepark and security. When thetourist from outside the country and within Tanzania reach Serengeti national park are guided with various rules and regulations including restriction of disposing and form of wastes unwontedly places. Human being works day and night to ensure that the park is secured enough against poachers who can kill animals for their known purposes. However human being burns grass in the park to assure the production of fresh grass for food and shelter of the animals within the park.
Dickson said that “after burning grasses it is expected that during rain season the grasses will grow faster and assure food availability for the animals like antelope. The Serengeti is a vast ecosystem in east center Africa. It spans 12000 square miles (30000 square kilometers), according to NASA, giving rise to its name, which is driven from the Masai language and means endless plains. This region of Africa is located in north Tanzania and extents to south western Ken-ya. The Serengeti encompasses Serengeti national park and a number of protected games reserves and conservation areas maintained by the governments of Tanzania and Kenya. The region hosts the largest mammal migration in the world.


New temporary Mwanza bus station

As it is always claimed that one of the factors which causes diseases to human life is from his environment. This could be through daily routines and activities done by human being including industrial activities, transportation activities, mining activitiesand agricultural activities. As it has been reported that industries are the major cause of threats but still... transportation activities cause harm to human life since its performance involves burning fuels, that produces poisonous gases to human health. Most people living or holding their activities across this kind of environment have been suffering from this situation. People engaging with Bus Stations in Mwanza Regional have realized to encounter suffering, and as our media tendency we give them an opportunity to express their pain towards public domain.
Ibrahim Massawe (33) addressed that, the current regional bus station affects the citizens living to the near area. ‘’The cur-rent bus stand very affecting us due to its close from our homes when bus produces fuel, we get flue’’. So, the burning process of fuel in vehicles such as petrol, diesel and oils affecting the citizens since the new bus stand is closer to people residences compared to the former bus stand.
Okocha Stephen (27) addressed that, the current bus stand has no good waste management. The waste management team is delaying to collect wastes. This could turn to poor conducive environment for entrepreneurs and bus agents. “Sometimes it can reach up one week and no any vehicle passing to collect wastes to the specific areas, this risks people who are working at bus station’’ addressed.
Emmanuel Joseph (39), as one of the citizens living around to new bus stand ad-dressed that ,the transportation activities are causing noise pollution especially when the buses are arriving in the morning. ‘’when buses starting their journey we are using to get disturbance since drivers making horn to alarm their passengers while at that time we are still sleeping after the all over fatigues from jobs’’ addressed.
Vedustus Michael (26), as a citizen said that, the current bus stand has the pollution which done by some passengersin the morning and eveningwhich pollutes the air tothe respective areas. “Some people are urinating in the side of the roads near by our houses instead of urinating to the toilet, this cause air pollution to our homes’’ addressed. So the leaders should make an effective security and strictly laws in ensuring this action is not continuing since it cause some disturbances which could be escapable.
Daudi Mashiranga (41), as a citizen said that, the environment is distracted due to some passengers’ behaviors on throwing dusts such as bottles after use.” Some passengers are not civilized since in steady of putting such dusts to the small bins found in the car but they throw outside of the car, this causes environmental pollution’’. Insisted there should be effective laws to people who are throwing wastes out of the car especially in the roads.
Cecilia Deogratius (28) as the bus agent said that, the current bus stand has rough road so there was a need to modernize the road in order to reduce dusts which affects workers around to bus station including bus agents, drivers, entrepreneurs and passengers.” We request the government to construct a tarmac road since we get infect-ed with the dust’’. This is according to the differences of infrastructures compared to the former bus station to be differing from the current.
Andrew Mtigita (26) as the bus agent addressed that, the current bus station has the challenge basing on the cleanness. “Toilets are not cleaned accordingly this is very dangerous and can cause to diseases such as urinary tract infections (UTI) and this is resulted from the poor organization of cleanness’’ addressed.
John Soja (42) as the chairman of bus agents said, “the new bus station has caused some employments opportunities to the citizens around the area such as business activities and has given advantage since it is close to them but on the other hand there is some negative impacts because this bus station is more close to the people’s residence and through this people get affected through the daily vehicle activities also the area of this bus station is smaller than the former bus station, though the government promised this bus station it is just for temporary since the plan was to modernize the previous but station and we are not sure what the exactly time could take until to be finished’’. So as the leader confirmed there are some challenges facing people around the bus station whether worker or citizens. Also added, “the government should improve the infrastructures of new bus station this could be easily to escape from diseases and this is possible because the entrepreneurs are paying taxes per each month’’.
Speaking with Doctor Joshua Emmanuel from Hope Dispensary addressed the way how industrial activities, including transportation activities can affect human being through different human body systems and organs such as lungs and may cause diseases such as mental distraction, Influenza and lungs problem. Said “Activities such as industrial activities and transportation activities should not be close to human being surroundings despite human brain by nature needs to rest during the night, so there should not be any disturbance during its resting’’. Activities such as industries and transportation like bus station should be far from residence, a good example is New Dodoma Regional Bus Station which is far from people residence and this could be helpful in reducing daily industrial activities affecting human life. This aim should be between the plans of urban settlement such as reinforcement of planting trees in the cities such as round about, memorial areas like makumbusho, Saba Saba areas and keeping waste proper in order to make conducive environment in nationwide.


One of the ways used to manage waste at Serengeti National Park. |Photo by VITUS AUDAX September 2020

The whole national park from registration entrance tries to manage all wastes produced in the park together with the people visiting the park. The students had a chance to speak with various hosts who live around the park on how they handle their waste well since the animals in the park can be affected by the wastes produced by human beings to preserve the environment with its wastes despite it being... a very large area with a lot of different guests and they still maintain its neatness.
Ensuring the environmental preservation and conservation inside and outside the park there are notices that have been placed around the hostels to ensure students maintaining the cleanliness of the environment when doing their tour by not littering plastic bottles and plastic bags since animals can eat them and be affected.
Dickson Novatus is a tour-guider who guided the students’ tour; he explained the Serengeti principles of managing waste and preserving the environment. He argued that all tourists who visits Serengeti national park are not allowed to dump any form of waste around the park because it is dangerous for wildlife. For those who will be discovered that they destroy the environment are supposed to pay fine of Tsh 500,000 as punishment for dumping waste around the park.
Emiliana Mringo, the hostel supervisor in the park when trying to answer the question on how they manage waste in the hostel, she said that the hostel place is the one which can never avoid the problem of waste since it is a destination area for tourists where they use for eating, cleaning and sleeping. By knowing that they have a way to manage waste which is to provide the dustbin then after collecting the dusts there is a car for taking them away from the park. “The area in the hostel is unavoidable in the problem of dust, simply because is the place where tourist do a lot of stuff like cleaning, eating and sleep. Therefore, by knowing that we have dustbins around the area for the collection of those dusts and finally there is a car for taking them out of the park,” Mringo addressed.
Emmanuel Jordan, a Serengeti tourist from Germany with his family enjoyed the technicalities applied by Serengeti national park management on environmental protection as he explained to the reporter. “With my family we enjoyed the park indeed, apart from touring on different parts in this park we have observed that in Tanzania especially in Serengeti national park there are best ways of protecting environment such as specified places for storing all plastic materials and also prohibition against unwanted waste throwing behaviors”.
Tourism is very responsible in the growth of national economy, and for a small share of waste generation such as in Europe and it contributes to about 6.7 % of total waste generation that arises from the wider services sector. And the ways to manage wastes are such as:
Reduce: whereby little wastes are created, reused, whereby here one is needed to consider where certain items can be reused, sold or donated to others that can use them. Sort, there is a need to have a system in place for sorting everyday waste items such as bottles, cans, cardboard and paper for recycling. Consider what else might be recycled, taking into account local disposal possibilities. Another way is recycling whereby one needs to send the sorted waste for recycling. This is according to the European Commission in 2010.
...Story by VITUS AUDAX